“A murder that involves a choking, a shooting, then a roping?”: Why rap lyrics shouldn’t be used in criminal cases

By June 11, 2014 43 comments Permalink

"A murder that involves a choking, a shooting, then a roping?": Why rap lyrics shouldn't be used in criminal cases
(Credit: Newport News Police)

In a Times Op-Ed earlier this year about the trend of prosecutors using rap lyrics written by defendants as evidence against them in criminal trials, Erik Nielson and his co-author wrote: “It is easy to conflate these artists with their art [and] it becomes easier still when that art reinforces stereotypes about young men of color — who are almost exclusively the defendants in these cases — as violent, hypersexual and dangerous.” Nielson, who teaches courses on hip-hop culture at the University of Richmond, has become an international expert on this increasingly common phenomenon: the use of rap lyrics in court. Nielson’s Op-Ed was largely based on the research from his article “Rap on Trial,” recently published in Race & Justice. He has testified for the defense in the California case of Alex Medina, was expert witness on the recent double murder trial of Virginia rapper Twain Gotti, and is scheduled to testify in several other upcoming cases.

When did prosecutors first begin introducing rap lyrics of defendants as evidence, and how often are they being used?

We’ve been able to find cases going back to the early 1990s, but it’s hard to say precisely when prosecutors first began doing this. One of the problems is that trial proceedings and court opinions are not published in any kind of systematic way. When I first started researching this issue, I thought I could go into some legal database like Lexis Nexus, type in “rap lyrics,” and get a list of cases. It doesn’t work like that. I’ve tried.

We’re interested in more than just trials — we want to know when lyrics are being used throughout the criminal justice process. We know, for example, that prosecutors are using the lyrics during indictment proceedings, sentencing hearings, and even in less formal ways — like using the lyrics as leverage to get defendants to take a plea bargain.

How successful, generally, has it been as a means toward conviction?

Very successful. That’s why prosecutors keep doing it! There’s actually some empirical evidence out there that demonstrates the prejudicial effect rap lyrics can have on jurors.

Now, in some cases, it’s honestly tough to say with certainty that rap lyrics alone led to a conviction, especially if they are just one of many pieces of evidence in the prosecutor’s case. But we’re seeing cases where the prosecutor’s evidence is extremely weak, and that’s when the rap lyrics become really powerful. The recent New Jersey case that’s now being considered by the state Supreme Court — State v. Vonte Skinner — is a perfect example.

This guy Skinner was charged with attempted murder for his alleged role in a shooting, but during his trial, prosecutors had very little evidence except some rap lyrics that he had written. What’s crazy is that the lyrics were written months — even years — before the shooting, none of them mentioned the victim, and none contained specific details of the crime. But the judge, seemingly asleep at the wheel, allowed the D.A. to read, uninterrupted, 13 pages of violent rap lyrics. Big shock: Skinner was found guilty. He’s doing 30 years.

We’re seeing this kind of thing all the time. Even worse, we’re seeing more and more cases where rap itself is the crime.

Is this institutional racism at work or has the culture of gangsta rap (as opposed to rap in general) contributed to this phenomenon?

Both, but institutional racism needs to be front and center in these discussions for a number of reasons, not the least of which is that gangsta rap was, and still is, very much a response to racism!

Look, I’ve been getting frustrated at times by the way discussions about this have been playing out. Don’t get me wrong; the rules of evidence, First Amendment protections and other legal issues are extremely important. But they are misguided if they aren’t framed in some way by the central issue here, which is the racism that persists in society generally and within our justice system in particular. Rap music is the only form of fictional expression being targeted this way in court, even though plenty of artistic genres are full of violence. If a body turns up in Maine, do we think police and prosecutors will start pouring over Stephen King’s novels so they can pin the crime to him? If Russell Crowe gets arrested for assault (again) and he goes to trial, do we think the D.A. will trot out “Gladiator,” arguing that it’s evidence of his motive or intent to commit violence?

But prosecutors use [rap] all the time and often tell jurors to interpret the lyrics as if they were diary or journal entries. Often a “gang expert” — a police officer — will assert his or her authority to talk about rap music and will parrot the prosecutor’s arguments: These lyrics are confessions.

Why does this work?

I think many people are unable to view rappers, predominantly young men of color, as artists in the first place, and when their rap lyrics also present an image of a hypersexualized, violent, even pathological figure, that image maps neatly to preexisting stereotypes, especially about young black men.

I don’t deny that gangsta rap has unique vulnerabilities. The need to create a sense of authenticity — of “keepin’ it real” — often results in real problems in court. If you’re still acting the part of your rap persona even when you’re offstage, you may know that it’s a P.R. strategy, but people who don’t know rap might not.

For centuries, we’ve pathologized black people, punished black artists, and more recently, we’ve begun warehousing record numbers of black and Hispanic men (and women) in prison. When we talk about rap on trial, I don’t want to hear about rules of evidence or the Constitution unless we’re having this conversation as well.

You were scheduled to testify on May 22 in the case of Atwain Steward, aka Twain Gotti, an up-and-coming rapper on trial in Virginia for double murder. The trial received international coverage in large part because you were summoned as an expert. What made the case of Steward so compelling?

Two things: The first is that it highlights a new and disturbing trend in law enforcement. In this case, two people were shot and killed in 2007. The case went cold for four years until an eager new detective started trying to crack it. That’s when he discovered a rap video on YouTube for a song called “Ride Out” by Antwain Steward, aka Twain Gotti, that includes lyrics about murder. Based largely on that video, the police homed in on Steward as a suspect and used it to justify his arrest and then his trial.

Steward’s case is indicative of a new way that horrible police work is often rewarded in the age of social media. Rather than gather actual evidence, police can simply monitor social media for rap lyrics, use the lyrics to charge someone, and watch as the prosecutor secures a conviction with that “evidence.” The head of the Newport News gang unit recently told a reporter that his officers spend roughly half of their time on the computer, often monitoring social media for “clues,” rather than working on the street. That’s crazy, but from the police perspective, that’s a job well done — minimal effort, maximum return. The problem is that it’s totally unjust.

Another issue is Steward’s status as a musician. We’ve found that, generally speaking, well-known rappers like Snoop Dogg, Beanie Sigel or Lil Boosie are less likely to be convicted based upon their lyrics, probably because they have name recognition as artists and, frankly, they have the resources to hire a good defense team. Amateurs, on the other hand, fare much less well. Steward straddles the fence. Just before he was arrested, he signed with a management company and was scheduled to go on a 22-city tour across the country. He’s not nationally known yet, but he’s much farther along than the 16-year-old kid rhyming over borrowed beats in his bedroom.

Were the specific lyrics expected to be used against him particularly compelling evidence?

I watched the interrogation videos with Mr. Steward after his arrest, and the detective kept talking about the song “Ride Out,” at one point saying that the lyrics described the murder “to a T.” Prosecutors also focused on it in a preliminary hearing. These are the lyrics they focused on:

Listen, walked to your boy and I approached him.

12 midnight on his trap house porch and

Everybody saw when I motherfuckin’ choked him.

But nobody saw when I motherfuckin’ smoked him,

Roped him, sharpened up the shank then I poked him.

.357 Smith & Wesson beam scoped him, roped him.

The police were calling this a confession to the 2007 double murder, which is kind of unbelievable. Apart from the fact that the time of day, caliber of gun and number of victims in the lyrics don’t match the actual crime — and that no victim is named at all — I would like to simply point how absurd the lyric actually is. If I’ve got this right, this is a “confession” to a murder that involves a choking, then a shooting, then a “roping” (presumably another kind of choking?), then a stabbing with a shank he sharpens on site, then another shooting, and then a final roping for good measure.

No hyperbole here, right?

So, you were not called to testify in the Steward case but ultimately no rap lyrics were used as evidence at all. What is the theory behind the prosecution’s last-minute decision?

Well, I did notice that prosecutors found opportunities to refer to Mr. Steward as “Twain Gotti” during the trial. That was their way of using rap against him without actually going into detail.

But right, I was literally sitting in a Newport News hotel, waiting for the call to testify that never came. The defense attorney, James Ellenson, finally called at the end of the day and said, “You scared them off!” He thinks that after prosecutors read my preliminary report, which was filed with the court, they didn’t want to deal with my testimony, so they changed their approach to the case, closing off all discussion of rap.

Everyone was shocked. It was a big risk on their part, especially given the impact that violent rap music and videos can have as evidence. In the end, I am thrilled that the case did not end up putting rap on trial, but I will be honest that I was looking forward to testifying.

advertisement

Can we assume that your role as expert witness in such cases is not over?

No, it has really just begun. I’ve got two more trials lined up for this year, and as I said before, I’d like to work with other scholars so that they, too, can start testifying. The preparation is exhausting, and I can only do so many myself.

When you do testify, what is your role in such cases?

If the lyrics [are accepted as evidence], then my role is to testify in court to provide context for the lyrics, as well as a broader understanding of hip-hop generally. The narrative surrounding rap, both in courts and in the media, is often that it promotes or perpetuates violence, but the history of hip-hop generally, and rap specifically, reveal the exact opposite. Hip-hop was actually conceived by early pioneers like Afrika Bambaataa as a way to end gang violence.

How did your fascination with hip-hop begin?

It began the second I heard it for the first time. I think it was in elementary school playing soccer, when somebody on the sidelines started playing Run DMC from a boom box. I loved it. From there, I started listening to whatever I could — and as a white kid from rural Massachusetts, I naturally gravitated to gangsta rap.

At that age, I didn’t fully understand or try to intellectualize what I was listening to. I’ve always been drawn to lyrical creativity and wordplay, and I think that — combined with the oppositional nature of the music itself (even when it was, in a way, opposing me) — hooked me. I don’t deny that I was also drawn to the tales of violence and lyrics that were even raunchier than what I heard from the older kids on the bus. I was a kid.

But from there, I really started listening to all kinds of rap music, going to whatever concerts I could, and becoming immersed in it. I saw genius in it—and it had a visceral impact as well—and that was that.

Are people often surprised to learn that you — a suburban-raised white guy nearing middle-age — are a nationally recognized authority on rap?

I appreciate the generosity, but at 38, I don’t think I can say I’m “nearing” middle age anymore. I’m there. And yeah, people are surprised all the time. When I teach my rap music class, I occasionally see students walk in on the first day, look at me, then check their schedules to make sure they’re in the right room.

That surprise has always been there, really. When I was 16 and going to rap concerts, I’d be one of just a few white people there. And people would come up to me all the time and say, “What are you doing here?” But you know what — it was never in a “get the hell out of here” way. It was genuine surprise that a white kid, obviously not from the ‘hood, would come out to the middle of New Haven or Springfield to listen to Ice Cube or Scarface. Back then — in the early 1990s — if you wanted to see many of these rappers, as a white person you had to be the one who felt out of place. Maybe uncomfortable. That’s not really true anymore, but it was then, and I was always made to feel welcome once I was willing to put myself in that position. It probably didn’t hurt that I knew the lyrics as well, if not better, than most people in the room!

How do your kids feel about it?

My kids are 7 and 5, and they love music generally. They know I write about and teach rap, and I think they are now beginning to see that as cool.

Published on Salon: “A murder that involves a choking, a shooting, then a roping?”: Why rap lyrics shouldn’t be used in criminal cases

43 responses to ““A murder that involves a choking, a shooting, then a roping?”: Why rap lyrics shouldn’t be used in criminal cases”

  1. I’m not butting in.. however are you right about this? It maybe kinda reactionary and I’m concerned about you :/

  2. I’d add a few ideas that support this. Can I?

  3. Something else is that when looking for a good on-line electronics retail outlet, look for web stores that are continuously updated, retaining up-to-date with the newest products, the perfect deals, along with helpful information on products and services. This will make certain you are dealing with a shop that stays over the competition and offers you what you ought to make intelligent, well-informed electronics buys. Thanks for the significant tips I have really learned through your blog.

  4. gamefly says:

    What’s up everyone, it’s my first visit at this web page, and
    piece of writing is truly fruitful in support of me, keep up posting these content.

  5. Good write-up. I absolutely appreciate this website.
    Thanks!

  6. gamefly says:

    Its like you read my mind! You appear to know a lot about this,
    like you wrote the book in it or something. I think that you can do with a few pics to drive the message home a
    bit, but instead of that, this is wonderful blog. A fantastic read.
    I’ll definitely be back.

  7. The Truth says:

    Hey, how’s it going?

    I want to pass along some very important news that everyone needs to hear!

    In December of 2017, Donald Trump made history by recognizing Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. Why is this big news? Because by this the Jewish people of Israel are now able to press forward in bringing about the Third Temple prophesied in the Bible.

    Jewish Rabbis have publicly announced that their Messiah will be revealed in the coming years who will be a leader and spiritual guide to all nations, gathering all religions under the worship of one God.

    Biblical prophecy tells us that this Jewish Messiah who will take the stage will be the antichrist “who opposes and exalts himself above all that is called God or that is worshiped, so that he sits as God in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God” (2 Thessalonians 2:4). For a time he will bring about a false peace, but “Therefore when you see the ‘abomination of desolation,’ spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing in the holy place (Matthew 24:15)…then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been since the beginning of the world until this time, no, nor ever shall be” (Matthew 24:21).

    More importantly, the power that runs the world wants to put a RFID microchip in our body making us total slaves to them. This chip matches perfectly with the Mark of the Beast in the Bible, more specifically in Revelation 13:16-18:

    “He causes all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their foreheads, and that no one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.

    Here is wisdom. Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666.”

    Referring to the last days, this could only be speaking of a cashless society, which we have yet to see, but are heading towards. Otherwise, we could still buy or sell without the mark amongst others if physical money was still currency. This Mark couldn’t be spiritual because the word references two different physical locations. If it was spiritual it would just say in the forehead. RFID microchip implant technology will be the future of a one world cashless society containing digital currency. It will be implanted in the right-hand or the forehead, and we cannot buy or sell without it. Revelation 13:11-18 tells us that a false prophet will arise on the world scene doing miracles before men, deceiving them to receive this Mark. Do not be deceived! We must grow strong in Jesus. AT ALL COSTS, DO NOT TAKE IT!

    “Then a third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, “If anyone worships the beast and his image, and receives his mark on his forehead or on his hand, he himself shall also drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out full strength into the cup of His indignation. He shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels and in the presence of the Lamb. And the smoke of their torment ascends forever and ever; and they have no rest day or night, who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name” (Revelation 14:9-11).

    People have been saying the end is coming for many years, but we needed two key things. One, the Third Temple, and two, the technology for a cashless society to fulfill the prophecy of the Mark of the Beast.

    Visit http://WWW.BIBLEFREEDOM.COM to see proof for these things and why the Bible truly is the word of God!

    If you haven’t already, it is time to seek God with all your heart. Jesus loves you more than you could imagine. He wants to have a relationship with you and redeem you from your sins. Turn to Him and repent while there is still hope! This is forever…God bless!

    “EITHER HUMAN INTELLIGENCE ULTIMATELY OWES ITS ORIGIN TO MINDLESS MATTER OR THERE IS A CREATOR…” – JOHN LENNOX

    We all know God exists. Why? Because without Him, we couldn’t prove anything at all. Do we live our lives as if we cannot know anything? No. So why is God necessary? In order to know anything for certain, you would have to know everything, or have revelation from somebody who does. Who is capable of knowing everything? God. So to know anything, you would have to be God, or know God.

    A worldview without God cannot account for the uniformity and intelligibility of nature. And why is it that we can even reason that God is the best explanation for this if there is no God? We are given reason to know or reject God, but never to know that He does not exist.

    It has been calculated by Roger Penrose that the odds of the initial conditions for the big bang to produce the universe that we see to be a number so big, that we could put a zero on every particle in the universe, and even that would not be enough to use every zero. What are the odds that God created the universe? Odds are no such thing. Who of you would gamble your life on one coin flip?

    Is there evidence that the Bible is the truth? Yes. Did you know that the creation accounts listed in the book of Genesis are not only all correct, but are also in the correct chronological order? That the Bible doesn’t say the Earth was formed in six 24-hour days but rather six long but finite periods of time? That the Bible makes 10 times more creation claims than all major “holy” books combined with no contradictions, while these other books have errors in them? The Bible stood alone by concurring with the big bang saying, “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth” (Genesis 1:1); and says our universe is expanding, thousands of years before scientists discovered these things. Watch a potential life-changing video on the website listed below with Astronomer(PhD) Hugh Ross explaining all these facts based on published scientific data. He has authored many books, backed even by atheist scientists.

    Jesus came to pay a debt that we could not; to be our legal justifier to reconcile us back to a Holy God; only if we are willing to receive Him: “For the wages of sin is death…” (Romans 6:23).

    God so loved the world that He gave us His only begotten son, so that whoever believes in Him, through faith, shall not perish, but have everlasting life. Jesus says if we wish to enter into life to keep the commands! The two greatest commands are to love God with all your heart, soul, strength, and mind; and your neighbor as yourself. All the law hang on these commands. We must be born of and lead by the Holy Spirit, to be called children of God, to inherit the kingdom. If we are willing to humble ourselves in prayer to Jesus, to confess and forsake our sins, He is willing to give the Holy Spirit to those who keep asking of Him; giving us a new heart, leading us into all truth!

    Jesus came to free us from the bondage of sin. The everlasting fire was prepared for the devil and his angels due to disobedience to God’s law. If we do the same, what makes us any different than the devil? Jesus says unless we repent, we shall perish. For sin is the transgression of the law. We must walk in the Spirit so we may not fulfill the lusts of the flesh, being hatred, fornication, drunkenness and the like. Whoever practices such things will not inherit the kingdom (Galatians 5:16-26). If we sin, we may come before Jesus to ask for forgiveness (1 John 2:1-2). Evil thoughts are not sins, but rather temptations. It is not until these thoughts conceive and give birth by our own desires that they become sin (James 1:12-15). When we sin, we become in the likeness of the devil’s image, for he who sins is of the devil (1 John 3:8); but if we obey Jesus, in the image of God. For without holiness, we shall not see the Lord (Hebrews 12:14).

    The oldest religion in the world is holiness through faith (James 1:27). What religion did Adam and Eve follow before the fall? Jesus, Who became the last Adam, what religion does He follow? Is He not holy? He never told us to follow the rituals and traditions of man but to take up our cross and follow Him (Luke 9:23). There are many false doctrines being taught leading people astray. This is why we need the Holy Spirit for discernment. Unlike religion, holiness cannot be created. It is given to us from above by the baptism of the Spirit. Jesus is more than a religion; He is about having a personal relationship with the Father. Start by reading the Gospel of Matthew, to hear the words of God, to know His character and commandments. Follow and obey Jesus, for He is the way, the truth, and the life!

  8. I’m extremely inspired together with your writing skills as smartly as
    with the layout on your blog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it your self?
    Either way stay up the nice high quality writing, it is uncommon to peer a
    great weblog like this one nowadays..

  9. Hi, I think your site might be having browser compatibility issues.
    When I look at your website in Firefox, it looks fine but when opening
    in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give you a quick heads
    up! Other then that, fantastic blog!

  10. It is appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it is time
    to be happy. I’ve read this post and if I could I desire to suggest you few interesting things or advice.
    Maybe you could write next articles referring
    to this article. I want to read more things about it!

  11. g says:

    When I initially commented I clicked the “Notify me when new comments are added” checkbox and now each time
    a comment is added I get four e-mails with the same comment.
    Is there any way you can remove people from that service?
    Bless you!

  12. g says:

    It’s actually a cool and helpful piece of information. I am glad that you simply shared this helpful information with us.
    Please keep us informed like this. Thank you for sharing.

  13. g says:

    That is a great tip especially to those fresh to the
    blogosphere. Simple but very accurate information… Thank you for sharing this one.
    A must read post!

  14. g says:

    magnificent publish, very informative. I wonder why the other specialists
    of this sector do not realize this. You must continue your writing.
    I’m sure, you’ve a huge readers’ base already!

  15. g says:

    Do you have a spam issue on this blog; I also am a blogger, and I was curious about your situation; we have created some nice procedures and we are looking to trade solutions with others,
    why not shoot me an e-mail if interested.

  16. Hi, I do believe this is a great blog. I stumbledupon it 😉
    I will come back yet again since i have bookmarked it.

    Money and freedom is the best way to change, may you be rich
    and continue to guide others.

  17. Attractive section of content. I just stumbled upon your site
    and in accession capital to assert that I get in fact enjoyed account your blog posts.

    Any way I will be subscribing to your augment
    and even I achievement you access consistently rapidly.

  18. Yes! Finally someone writes about download
    minecraft for free.

  19. The other day, while I was at work, my cousin stole my
    iPad and tested to see if it can survive a 30
    foot drop, just so she can be a youtube sensation.
    My iPad is now broken and she has 83 views.
    I know this is completely off topic but I had to share it with someone!

  20. would love to perpetually get updated outstanding site! .

  21. Hello There. I discovered your weblog the use of msn. This is an extremely smartly written article.
    I will make sure to bookmark it and return to read more of your useful info.

    Thank you for the post. I will certainly return.

  22. Your style is so unique compared to other people I have read stuff from.

    I appreciate you for posting when you have the opportunity, Guess I’ll just bookmark this web site.

  23. I am not sure where you’re getting your info, but good topic.
    I needs to spend some time learning much more or understanding more.
    Thanks for wonderful info I was looking for this information for my mission.

  24. It’s remarkable to go to see this web page and reading the views of all friends about this post, while I am also zealous of getting knowledge.

  25. I just could not depart your web site before suggesting
    that I really enjoyed the standard information an individual provide
    in your visitors? Is gonna be back steadily in order to check
    up on new posts

  26. After I initially commented I seem to have clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and
    from now on every time a comment is added I receive four emails with the same comment.

    There has to be an easy method you can remove me from that service?
    Thanks a lot!

  27. Franarrah says:

    Viagra Ingredientes Cephalexin Dog Dosage Viagra Homme Forum cialis without a doctor’s prescription Cialis Come Funziona Priligy Packaging Kamagra Opiniones Efectos Secundarios

  28. After I initially left a comment I seem to have clicked on the -Notify me
    when new comments are added- checkbox and from now on every time a comment is added I receive four emails
    with the exact same comment. Perhaps there is a means you are able to remove me from that
    service? Thanks!

  29. First of all I want to say wonderful blog!
    I had a quick question in which I’d like to ask if you don’t mind.
    I was interested to know how you center yourself and clear your head before writing.

    I have had a hard time clearing my mind in getting my thoughts out.
    I do enjoy writing but it just seems like the first 10 to 15 minutes
    are generally wasted just trying to figure out how to begin. Any suggestions or tips?
    Many thanks!

  30. My family members always say that I am killing my time here at net, however I know I am getting know-how
    every day by reading such good articles.

  31. Franarrah says:

    Cialis Generic 5mg viagra Order Viagra Priligy Tomar Viagra Im Internet

  32. I will right away clutch your rss feed as I can not find your e-mail subscription link
    or newsletter service. Do you’ve any? Please allow me recognise in order that I may subscribe.
    Thanks.

  33. I all the time used to study post in news papers but now as I am a user
    of internet thus from now I am using net for articles or reviews, thanks to web.

  34. quest bars says:

    I used to be recommended this blog through my cousin. I am no longer sure whether this submit
    is written by way of him as nobody else know such exact about my problem.
    You’re amazing! Thanks!

  35. tinyurl.com says:

    My programmer is trying to persuade me to move to .net from PHP.

    I have always disliked the idea because of the costs. But he’s tryiong none the less.

    I’ve been using Movable-type on several websites for about a year and am worried about switching to another platform.
    I have heard very good things about blogengine.net. Is there
    a way I can import all my wordpress posts
    into it? Any kind of help would be greatly appreciated!

  36. Franarrah says:

    Misoprostol 200 Mcg Online implicane Zithromax Pills Online Buy Accutane Online In Canada

  37. Franarrah says:

    Precios Viagra En Farmacia Keflex For Dogs Ear Infection viagra Commander Du Propecia Canine Keflex

  38. I’ve been surfing online more than 3 hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours.
    It is pretty worth enough for me. In my view, if all web owners and bloggers made good content
    as you did, the internet will be much more useful
    than ever before.

  39. Franarrah says:

    Dutasteride Where To Buy By Money Order Shop Levitra Safe Cialis Viagra Risques generic cialis Cephalexin Respiratory Pet Rats Cialis Mg Generic Zithromax Tablet

  40. My spouse and I absolutely love your blog and find most of your post’s to be just what
    I’m looking for. Would you offer guest writers to write content
    for you? I wouldn’t mind publishing a post or elaborating on most of the subjects you
    write about here. Again, awesome web site!

  41. This reminds me of the other info I was looking at earlier

  42. Franarrah says:

    Buy Tizac Without Prescription viagra Dapoxetine Review Zoloft 5mg No Prescription

  43. you are really a good webmaster. The web site loading speed is incredible. It seems that you’re doing any unique trick. Furthermore, The contents are masterpiece. you’ve done a magnificent job on this topic!

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *